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30.11.2022 15:38 -
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Annotation: The author reconsiders some well-known facts about Dark Ages and offers a consistent picture of the events in the history of Eurasia. According to the received picture, the Buddhist"s role in the events of The Migration Period (German loanword Vlkerwanderung) was underestimated.

Emperor of the Maurya dynasty Ashoka the Great, who ruled almost all of the Indian subcontinent from  268 to 232 BC,[1] established the relationship between Buddhism and the state.

image The first known inscription by Ashoka, the Kandahar Bilingual Rock Inscription in Greek and in Aramaic written in the 10th year of his reign (260 BC)

According to the Mahavamsa,[2] in the 17th year of his reign, at the end of the Third Buddhist Council, Ashoka sent Buddhist missionaries to nine parts of the world (eight parts of Southern Asia, and the “Country of the Yonas[3]”) to promote Buddhism.

image Ashoka"s visit to the Ramagrama stupa Sanchi Stupa 1 Southern gateway

From the 2nd century AD, onwards — since the reign of Kanishka the Great, an emperor of the Kushan dynasty, state ideology based on Buddhist doctrines has dominated in Central Asia.

image Detail of Kanishka, surrounded by the Iranian Sun-God and Moon-God, on the Kanishka casket. British Museum

Andrey Zelinsky: “Having received initiation from the Kashmiri[4] teacher Sudarshana, Kanishka did not cease to be an Emperor, a despot and a conqueror, but became a defender of Buddhists. Buddhism, without ceasing to be a doctrine of mercy, acquired the features of a militant Church”.

image Gold coin of Kanishka. Greco-Bactrian legend: ϷΑΟΝΑΝΟϷΑΟ ΚΑΝΗϷΚΙ ΚΟϷΑΝΟ Shaonanoshao Kanishki Koshano "King of Kings, Kanishka the Kushan"

Until the end of the 3rd century, the multi-million Kushan Empire of Buddhists flourished, and Buddha"s teachings were spread by kushans all over the world.

image The inscription is in middle Brahmi script: Mahārāja Rājadhirāja Devaputra Kāṇiṣka "The Great King, King of Kings, Son of God, Kanishka". Mathura art, Mathura Museum

Boris Stavisky: “A Chinese spy in Indochina, describing the political situation in the twenties of the 3rd century, noted that the whole world is divided into three parts, subordinated to the three "Sons of Heaven" (emperors): Chinese, Roman and Kushan… At this time, Buddhism was widely spread from India, its homeland, to the countries of Southeast Asia, Central Asia and the Far East.

image Kushan prince making a donation to a Boddhisattva

It was in the Kushan period that Great Silk Road — the first transcontinental route in the history of our planet was laid. It stretched from the Han Empire, through the lands of the Kushan and Parthian kingdoms, to the Roman Mediterranean…

image

At that time, contacts were also established between Central Asia, the tribes of the Urals and near the Urals and the population of the Northern Black Sea region”.

image A map of India showing the extent of the Kushan Empire during the reign of Kanishka. Most historians consider the empire to have variously extended as far east as the middle Ganges plain, to Varanasi on the confluence of the Ganges and the Jumna, or probably even Pataliputra

Thus the teaching of Buddha enjoyed unlimited support of one of the three world powers of the Ancient World for several centuries.

image Kushan territories (full line) and maximum extent of Kushan dominions under Kanishka (dotted line), according to the Rabatak inscription

Pent Nurmekund: “The spread of Buddhism in China continued unabated throughout the Kushan era. In the history of China it corresponds to the periods of the Late Han (to 221) and Six Dynasties (from 222 to 589).

image The another modern map of Kushan Empire

Translation of the Buddhist Canon from Sanskrit into Chinese has put forward the need for transliteration of untranslatable terms.

image

The idea of phonetic writing arose in this connection for the first time in the history of the Chinese language and writing”.

image Pliny the Elder died in 79 AD in Stabiae while attempting the rescue of a friend and his family by ship from the eruption of Mount Vesuvius, which had already destroyed the cities of Pompeii and Herculaneum. The Last Day of Pompeii. Painting by Karl Brullov, 1830–1833

Pliny the Elder: “Of all the kinds the palm is to the Seric iron.

image

The Seres send this with their textile fabrics and skins.

image Blond Kushan warriors. Modern reconstruction

The second place is to the Parthian, and there are no other kinds of iron which are tempered into the true steel for they are mixed with other elements”.[5]

image Dom S.Maria Maggiore in Como. Statue Plinius der ltere von Tommaso und Jacobo Rodari

In the first centuries of the new era, a special silk market was in Rome.

image

A pound of silk was worth a pound of gold,[6] the body shone through the silk robes.[7]

image

Women in ancient Rome loved to buy silk.

image The Silk Road is an ancient corridor roughly 6400 kilometers long

Yevgeny Lubo-Lesnichenko: “Countless caravans brought silk to West from far Serika”.

image

Smooth silk fabric sericae were made in Xiy (literally the “Western border”, — area of Gansu and Shanxi).

image Gaochang ruins of Roman defectors"s camp. Turfan, East Turkestan/Xinjiang, China, Silk Road

In the same region are located the main monuments of Mature Buddhist art — rock temples The Yungang Grottoes (Shanxi) and The Longmen Grottoes (Henan).

image The Yungang Grottoes

The Buddhist pilgrim Faxian described (in 4th cen.) the then silk-growing center of Khotan (Sanskrit name: Kustana[8]) as an amazing city where the cult of Buddha flourished.

image Roman gladiator on a glass vessel, Begram (Afghanistan), 2nd century

The production of such silk quantities and the creation of great monuments certainly attracted thousands of people familiar with the teachings of the Buddha.

image Novokshonov D. E. Rimskie nevozvraschenci: uteshenie dyroi. Επος. Chernovik so stranicami i polyami dlya marginaliy chitatelya [Roman defectors: Hole’s consolation. Επος. Draft with marginal pages and margins to reader]. Saint-Petersburg, 2013

Steel, praised by Pliny, was produced in the middle part of Yenisei River basin, where archaeologists have unearthed traces of a large mining and metallurgical industry, called the Tagar[9] culture.

image The Tagar culture in South Siberia (Republic of Khakassia, southern part of Krasnoyarsk Territory, eastern part of Kemerovo Province) was one of the largest centres of bronze-smelting in ancient Eurasia. Photo: https://etceterini.livejournal.com/3649.html

Archaeologists distinguish two types of bronze products made by Kushan metallurgists: Tagar, associated with the continuity of the inventory of the previous period, and the Huns, widespread at this time throughout the belt of the Asian steppes — except for the Middle Yenisei in Transbaikalia, Mongolia and Ordos (Compare to Latin Ordo).

image Stone from the fence of the Big Salbyk Kurgan

The nomads supplied the Kushan furriers with raw materials for the skins mentioned by Pliny.

image The Buddha of Bamiyan (Afghanistan)

Now the Tarim basin is a depopulated desert.

image Early Slavs playing double Svirel, Spoons and Gusli. Stone palette of Gandhara. Their descendants were called skomorokhy (buffoons) and entertained co-religionists who mastered and made habitable the land of the impassable taiga of Eastern Europe.

From 3rd to 5th century millions of Buddhists disappeared from Xinjiang, Northern India and the Yenisei River basin.

image Statues of the Huns were in Ordos. Now monuments are destroyed

But simultaneously out of the blue in Eastern Europe appeared millions of Slavs who had steel tools: axes, hoes, cleavers and sickles.

image Slavic axes

Slavic pioneers used slash and burn system of agriculture.

image Early Slavs (slavjan) with Roman spades on a Buner relief from Gandhara. The Buner reliefs are a series of frieze reliefs in Buner District of the Peshawar valley in Pakistan near the Swat Valley

Buddhists cut down and then burned virgin forests (taiga) under the arable land for those who followed them.

image A pair of the early Slavs"s lovers on the bench (zavalinka). Gandhara

It was hard work. Then they sowed the cleared areas with millet, peas and hemp.

image

Only by the 7th century Kushan (Russian “” [kushak]) metallurgists established iron production in the new West lands. However, it was of poor quality for a long time. The weapons were still delivered from the East.

image Gunner of the Don artillery belted with a blue sash (kushak, belt) in 1812. Watercolor by A. Ezhov

The outflow of population from the Kushan Empire went not only to Eastern Europe.

image Mahendraparvata: an early Angkor-period capital defined through airborne laser scanning at Phnom Kulen

Oleg Gutsulyak: “Indian lands southeast of Kandahar are called Kambodia or Yona-Kamboja. G. Bongard-Levin and G. Ilyin deduced this name from the Greek-Aramaic version of the name Kandahar (given, according to Al-Biruni, by the natives of Gandhara). Kambodia migrated South to Gujarat, South India and Sri Lanka, and later also to Bengal and Cambodia (Khmer: Kampuchea)”.[10]

image King Suryavarman II, the builder of Angkor Wat

Resettlement continued for several hundred years up to the 5th century.

image Faces of Bodhisattva Avalokiteshvara at Prasat Bayon

However, Cambodia was unable to accommodate all internally displaced persons. The uninhabited lands of Eastern Europe accepted them.

image A well in India (photo left) and the Hun"s Noin-Ula burial complex in Mongolia (photo right)

Dramatic historical events always leave a mark on the speech of the people in question.

image A cataphract-style parade armour of a Saka-Kushan royal, also known as "The Golden Warrior", from the Issyk kurgan, a historical burial site near ex-capital city of Almaty, Kazakhstan

For example, due to the Cold War the world with the word “Kalashnikov” () spread into almost all world languages.

image The Kalashnikov assault rifle 1974, model by Izhmash Russia (AK–74)

The Slavs’s resettlement and the war against Europe in the fifth century led by the Huns of Attila is no exception.

image The map shows the possible routes taken by Attila"s forces as they invaded Gaul, and the major cities that were sacked or threatened by the Huns and their allies

The Huns were a military Alliance of men who came from Central Asia in the 3rd–5th centuries.

image

Attila (Compare to Latin Atta) — the leader of the Huns from 434 to 453 — united the tribes from the Rhine River to China.

image Battle of the Catalaunian Fields 451 by Jos Daniel Cabrera Pea

Neil Archbishop of Yaroslavl: “Parents of Attila wandered along the banks of the Yenisei”.

image The Kushan warrior of 1st century. Another modern reconstruction

The multi-tribal and multi-lingual personnel the Attila’s army was called up from the military contingents in the territories that were parts of the Kushan Empire.

image Blond Yuezhi (Saka-Śaka-Shaka-Kushan) Cavalryman. Modern reconstruction again

Fighters and commanders of his army were familiar with the essentials of Buddha"s doctrine from their childhood.

image Medal of Attila, 17th century

The European center for settlement of the Huns was in Pannonia (Hungary), where the Ugrian-Hungarians later settled.

image Anonymus Bele regis notarius (Anonymous Notary of King Bela) or Master P. (fl. late 12th century — early 13th century) was the notary and chronicler of a Hungarian King, probably Bla III. Little is known about him, but his latinized name began with P, as he referred to himself as "P. dictus magister". Statue of Anonymus in the City Park of Budapest. Created by Mikls Ligeti in 1903

The co-ruler of the Huns and brother of Attila is known by the names Buda, Beda and Bleda of which Buda was given to the city Budapest (the capital of Hungary).

image The Attila Empire"s West Part and subject tribes

There is important common Slavic word that reminds of Buddha — Bhaga-[Bog] (“Donator, God”, in Modern English: Bog, Big, Boss, Box etc.), which was among the titles attributed to Ashoka, Kanishka and Buddhas.

image The Romans regarded the Greeks as natural slaves (bondman, bondservant, servant). Only Roman citizens were allowed to wear togas

This word remains in the languages of Slavs to refer to the Lord-Creator.[11]

image 6th century icon, depicting Boz like Christ giving a blessing. Two digits appear straightened, three folded. The Old Believers regard this as the proper way of making the sign of the Cross

The first Gothic historian Jordan in his 6th century"s work “De origine actibusque Getarum” (“The Origin and Deeds of the Getae/Goths”) reports about the Slavic Boz"s (Rex Antorum[12]) murder by the Goths in 375:

image Icon of Slav"s Boz (Boos). Look to the Gldenstdt J. A. Reisen durch Russland und im Caucasischen Gebrge. St. Petersburg, 1787–1791

“He [Vithimiris-Vinitharius][13] rivalled the valor of his grandfather Vultuulf, although he had not the good fortune of Hermanaric. But disliking to remain under the rule of the Huns, he withdrew a little from them and strove to show his courage by moving his forces against the country of the Antes. When he attacked them, he was beaten in the first encounter. Thereafter he did valiantly and, as a terrible example, crucified their king, named Boz, together with his sons and seventy nobles, and left their bodies hanging there to double the fear of those who had surrendered” (translation by Charles C. Mierow).[14]

image Antes (modern reconsruction)

Boz (Bog) was the Buddha to whom the Slavs still attribute the creation of their language.

image Goths

In his work “Die Goten: Sprache und Kultur”, Piergiuseppe Scardigli shows that in Europe in those days the word “Goth” (Russian[gad]) was not a designation of a tribe, but of heroes, condottieri, and mercenaries.

image Mounted warriors of the Greuthungi and Alans

The Slavs fought together Attila"s mercenary soldiers and used to call them “([nemtsi], from “” — dumb, speechless).

image

This was because the mercenaries came from different tribes and did not speak Slavic languages.

image

The “Nemtsi” became the progenitors of the modern speakers of Germanic languages.

image "The Huns at the Battle of Chalons" from page 135 of A Popular History of France From The Earliest Times Volume I of VI. Illustration by A. De Neuville (1836–1885)

Following the works of G. Vernadsky, P. Scardigli made a conclusion that the penetration of Buddhists in Dacia (Romania) happened at the end of the 2nd century, and not at the beginning of the 3rd century.

image Buddha. Afghanistan. 4-6 centuries. Terracotta, garnet eyes. Metropolitan Museum. New-York

The basis for the conclusion — the inscription found in the Buddhist crypt near Pune mid-2nd century.

image

The inscription also mentions Gata, perhaps in reference to Goths.

image Kālacakra statue in American Museum of Natural History, New York City

One of the main concepts of Buddha"s doctrine —The Kalachakra(Sanskrit: कालचक्र, “Wheel of Time”) — is described in Lamaism and Tibetan Buddhism.

image The Celtic cross is featuring a nimbus or ring that emerged in Ireland and Britain in the Early Middle Ages

The memory of the spread of Kalachakra"s concept is evident in the languages of the people who participated in Attila’s wars.

image

The idea of Kalachakra was preserved in the words, [kalach, kalash])[15],[kalka] ([kalit’], “heating”), and[karachun].[16]

image High Cross in Llanynys, North Wales

Karachun — is a common Turkic word understood as kara (“black”) + chun (“soul or ghost”) — black (dark) spirit.

image

Hungarian (Finno-Ugric language) Karcsony — “Yuletide”, “Christmas”.

image A 17th century depiction of Attila the Hun from Ungarische Chronica, written by German writer Wilhelm Dilich

Karachun — common Slavic word with the main meaning of “Death” and “Yuletide, Christmas”;

image

Belarusian, Malorussian — Karačun ();

image

Old Russian — Koročunŭ ();

image

Russian — Koročun () or Karačun ();

In Buddhist fairy tales, Attila is remembered as Achala. Acala or Achala (Sanskrit: अचल, "The Immovable"), also known as Acalanātha (अचलनाथ, "Immovable Lord") or Āryācalanātha (आर्याचलनाथ, "Noble Immovable Lord"), is a wrathful deity and dharmapala (protector of the Dharma) prominent in Vajrayana Buddhism and East Asian Buddhism. Originally a minor deity described as a messenger or acolyte of the buddha Vairocana, Acala later rose to prominence as an object of veneration in his own right as a remover of obstacles and destroyer of evil. He also came to be interpreted as the wrathful manifestation of either Vairocana, the buddha Akṣobhya, or the bodhisattva Majuśrī. In later texts, he is also called Caṇḍaroṣaṇa (ण्डरोषण​, "Violent Wrathful One") or Caṇḍamahāroṣaṇa (चण्डमहारोषण​, "Violent One of Great Wrath"), the names by which he is more commonly known in countries like Nepal and Tibet. In East Asian esoteric Buddhism, Acala is classed among the wisdom kings (vidyārāja) and is preeminent among the Five Wisdom Kings of the Womb Realm. Accordingly, he occupies an important hierarchical position in the Mandala of the Two Realms. In China, he is known as Budong Mingwang (不動明王, "Immovable Wisdom King", the Chinese translation of Sanskrit Acala Vidyārāja), while in Japan, he is called Fudō Myōō, the on"yomi reading of his Chinese name. Acala (as Fudō) is one of the especially important and well-known divinities in Japanese Buddhism, being especially venerated in the Shingon, Tendai, Zen, and Nichiren sects, as well as in Shugendō.

Bulgarian — Kračon () or Kračunek ();

image Dancing in a mask with bull horns. Mongolian Koliada or koleda (Cyrillic: , , , ) is an ancient pre-Christian Slavic and Baltic winter festival of Kalachakra. It was later incorporated into Christmas.

Macedonian — Kračun ();

image Cross near Peebles, Scotland

Ruthenian — K(e)rečun (()) or G(e)rečun (());

image

Serbian — Kračun ();

Slovak — Kračn;

Romanian (Romanic language) — Crăciun.

image Koshchey the Deathless by Ivan Bilibin, 1901

Until the 18th century, Russian folk-tales character of Slavic mythology Koschei[17] was usually called Karachun.

image Raphael"s The Meeting between Leo the Great and Attila depicts Leo, escorted by Saint Peter and Saint Paul, meeting with the Hun emperor outside Rome

The origin of the Angles and Saxons from Central Asia is now undisputed.The Anglo-Saxon concept of “Culture” is more clearly understood through the concept of Kalachakra, and not directly from the Latincolo.

image Hands of Boz — a symbol found on ceramics of Przeworsk culture. The Przeworsk culture is part of an Iron Age archaeological complex that dates Early Middle Age

In modern Russia, some followers of “Slavic Native Faith” (Rodnovers) argue that the Russian name of the swastika is kolovrat (Russian: , literally “Recurrence”, “Spinning Wheel”).

image Agitation of rodnovers in Russia today

The swastika is considered to symbolize the auspicious footprints of the Buddha. It is an aniconic symbol of the Buddha in many parts of Asia and homologous with the “Dharma Wheel”.

image Propaganda of rodnovers in Russia today

After the killing of Boz (Buddha) with his angels-disciples and archangels-teachers in 375 by the Goths, there was no one left to explain the complex concept of Kalachakra in Europe.

image The 3rd century Great Ludovisi sarcophagus depicts a battle between Goths and Romans

Nemtsi, in particular Goths, from the army of Attila in their own way comprehended Kalachakra and enriched a number of Slavic languages with its new meaning — heart.

image

In Deutsch (Germanic language) “Heart” is Herz, in Spanish (Romanic language) — Corazn, in Russian (Slavic language) — C [Serdče].

image Flag of the Romuva religion

Horsa — was the name of the legendary first Anglo-Saxon King in Britannia, who died in 455.

image Hengist and Horsa are legendary brothers said to have led the Angles, Saxons and Jutes in their invasion of Britain in the 5th century. Tradition lists Hengist as the first of the Jutish kings of Kent. Wappen der Stadt Bnde

Eastern Slavs called the god of the young sun after Yuletide (Christmas) — Xors (, Horse, Horos, C(H)arse).

image Early forms: cross slab, St. Madoes, Perthshire, Scotland

The Kālacakra Tantra (Sanskrit: कालचक्र तन्त्र, “Wheel of Time Tantra”) in Tibetan tradition is considered to be the pinnacle of Mahāyāna’s Vajra-yāna.

image Vajrayana adopted deities such as Bhairava, known as Yamantaka in Tibetan Buddhism

Vajradhatu Temple at Karchung was established in Tibet in 8th century (sKar chung rgya sde lha khang). The Tibetian “sKar chung” stands for a “little star”.

image The crucified Slavs"s Boz (Buddha)

The self-name of the Slavs — (slavjani-slavyani), as the word Mahā-yāna, is deconstructed into two roots and is understandable in Latin asSalvus Janus,salv-jani, slav-jani.

image The Zbruch Idol preserved at Krakow Archaeological Museum

Slavs brought to Europe not only the concept of Kalachakra.

image Buddha from the Tiger Cave Temple (Buddhist temple north-northeast of Krabi, Thailand)

Migrants from Central Asia spread across the East European Plain by land and water.

image Kushan Slavjan man with Blond Horse

Thousands of undersized steppe horses — savraski — were used for overland travel.

image Vasilij Grigorievič Perov. Last Journey, 1865

To navigate rivers Slavs built ships, drawings of which may be found in Central Asia.

image The main way of resettlement to the West of Slavs according to the last census in Russia

The Latin wordmare(Russian) is absent in Indo-Iranian and Germanic languages (See). Romans went to the East using the wordscorbis(basket),corbula(basket, box).

image Nicholas Roerich, Guests from Overseas (corrected colour)

Izmail Sreznevsky: “Every Slavic dialect uses this word as its own… e. g. korab, korabi — exists as people"s words. Bulgarian , Czech korab, Polish korab and Serbian stand for ship, boat, box”.

image Knarr is the Old Norse term for a type of ship built for long sea voyages and used during the Viking expansion

In Russian fairy tales the frog Vasilisa (Greek Βασίλισσα, The Queen) went to Ivan (Yavan) in a box (, korbtsenka).

image Frog Vasilisa

The Latin wordcorbis, was transformed into Slavic and then into Russian (ship): κάραβος = (the boat)[18] and in Late Latin:carabus;[19] Spanish carabella, Portuguese caravella, Arabic carab and gurab.

image Prince Oleg (Allah, Old Norse: Helgi, Old East Slavic (Olĭgŭ)) approached by Pagan (Buddhist) Priests, a Kholuy illustration to Pushkin"s ballad

After the campaigns of Attila, Buddhist traditions of the Slavs slowly faded.

image Portrait of Karamzin by Vasily Tropinin, 1818

However, in 18th century Nikolay Karamzin — author of the 12-volume “History of the Russian State” — mentions the Northern Dalai Lama, who ruled Lithuania, Prussia, Kurland and Letland until the introduction of Christian fables in the end of the 11th century.

image Romuva sanctuary with Bodhi Tree in Prussia: a depiction based on the 16th-century account of Simon Grunau. The Bodhi tree is one of the main symbols in Buddhism, it is inherent in all Buddhas. In Buddhist monasteries, the tree is specially cultivated and planted

Vladimir Nikiphorov: “In the 9th century (simultaneously with the emergence of Kievan Rus and the departure of Buddhism from India), the powerful Cambodian Empire with its center in Angkor[20] flourished. The country was ruled by a monarch, whose personality was deified. Free inhabitants wore weapons and were foreigners”.

image Angkor Wat. Front side of the main complex

The same aliens became known in Europe under the name of Huns.

image Roman villa in Gaul sacked by the hordes of Attila the Hun. Illustration from a book: Georges Rochegrosse, sa vie, son oeuvre [par J. Valmy-Baysse] Nombreuses reproductions (1910)

Hans (Russian: , Hun’s, English: gun) — in Dutch, Danish, Icelandic, German, Norwegian and Swedish the diminutive form of the male name Johann (Russian: — (I’m Hun)).

image Detail of Hunnish gold and garnet bracelet, 5th century, Walters Art Museum

There is a parallel to the recent history of this planet. In 1991, the Communist Bloc, united by a common ideology, ceased to exist due to the confusion of the minds of its leaders.

image The Huns (outside) set fire to their own hall to kill the Burgundians. Illustration from the Hundeshagen Codex of the Nibelungenlied

In 1992 Francis Fukuyama called the events, that followed, “End of history”.

image

However, the analogy with the events of The Migration Period (German loanword Vlkerwanderung) gives reason to discuss the next “Wheel of Time” instead of the “End of history”.

image

Before the murder of Bog (Buddha) in 375 the Slavs were Buddhists. After this event, began the division of the Slavs.

image The migration of Slavs in Europe after Boz"s death and Attila"s wars between the 5th and 10th centuries image

There is unknowable necessity of the history: half a thousand years after the death of Slavs" living Buddha, the name Kalachakra began to designate the most deadly weapon on Earth — Kalashnikov assault rifle.

image Icon of Slav"s Boz. Look to the Voyages dans les steps d’Astrakhan et du Caucase. Histoire primitive des peuples qui ont habit anciennement ces contres. Nouveau priple du Pont-Euxin. Par le Comte Jean Potocki, Paris. 1829

This situation is not satisfactory. The world stands on the threshold of Slavic Renaissance.

image

It will begin when the Slavs and their allies — the Nemtsi — remember their common Bog (God) — Buddha.

image

Annotations

[1] These generally accepted dates are questionable.

[2] XII, 1st paragraph.

[3] Compare to Latin Janus.

[4] Kashmir is the northernmost geographical region of the Indian subcontinent.

[5] Translation by Schoff W. H. The Eastern Iron Trade of the Roman Empire // Journal of the American Oriental Society. Vol. 35, 1915, P. 224–239; Plin. H. N. 34, 145: Ex omnibus generibus palma Serico ferro est. Seres hoc cum vestibus suis pellibusque mittunt. Secunda Parthico, neque alia genera ferri ex mera acie temperatur, caeteris enim admiscentur.

[6] Vopisc. Aurel. 45.

[7] Hor. Sat. 1, 2, 101.

[8] Compare with the name of the city in Kazakhstan Kustanay-Kostanoy (, ́).

[9] Compare to Latin Toga.

[10] Descendants of ancient kambojas are considered to be the tribe of Kambojas in Punjab and some tribes in the Afghan province of Nuristan.

[11] Compare to Polish Bg (Pan, panowie), bstwo, bożek.

[12] The Antes or Antae (Greek νται) were an early East Slavic tribal polity which existed in the IV–VII c. It name used by Byzantine writers in VI–VII.

[13] According to Jordanes Vinitharius (The Winner of the Aria) became the new king of the Greuthungi after the death of Ermanaric (Hermanaric). Ammianus Marcellinus reports that Ermanaric was succeeded by Vithimiris (Gotsk. Wiimir, Widumers — Famous in woodland).

[14] Iordan. De origine actibusque Getarum. XLVIII. 247: Qui avi Vultulfi virtute imitatus, quamvis Hermanarici felicitate inferior, tamen aegre ferens Hunnorum imperio subiacere, paululum se subtrahens ab illis suaque dum nititur ostendere virtute, in Antorum fines movit procinctum, eosque dum adgreditur prima congressione superatus, deinde fortiter egit regemque eorum Boz nomine cum filiis suis et lxx primatibus in exemplum terroris adfixit, ut dediticiis metum cadavera pendentium geminarent.

[15] M. Fasmer raises to the source *kolo (wheeĺ).

[16] The non-distinction of sounds [r] and [l] is noted in early Sanskrit, Finno-Ugric and Chinese.

[17] Koschei (Russian: ́, tr. Koshchey), often given the epithet the Immortal, or the Deathless (Russian: ́ ́), is an archetypal male antagonist.

[18] ́ (Ḱrbas) also ́ (Karb́s), Vepsian karbaz — sailing and rowing vessel, one of the main in Pomors and other inhabitants of the North and Siberia.

[19] Saint Isidore of Seville: carabus is a small boat of woven rods, covered with leather.

[20] Compare to Latin Ancora (Slavic Ancona, Turkish Ancara etc.).

Bibliography

AnonymiBele Regis Notarii Gesta Hungarorum / Edited, translated and annotated by Martyn Rady and Lszl Veszprmy. Budapest–New York, 2010.

Burrow T.The Sanskrit Language. L., 1959.

Dechodt E.Attila. Paris, 2006.

Heather J. The Fall of the Roman Empire: A New History of Rome and the Barbarians. Oxford US, 2006.

Jermsawatdi Promsak.Thai Art with Indian Influences. Abhinav Publications. 1979.

Kulke H., Rothermund D.A history of India. London–New York, 1998.

Kumar Baldev. The Early Kuṣāṇas. New Delhi, 1973.

Meillet A. Le Slave Commun. Paris, 1934.

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